How far would a basketball with backspin go? Rotor wing experimental aircraft: https://youtu.be/Ra8y6gGotwY E-ship 1: https://youtu.be/qJ7haGqXs_E Corner kick by Kyle: https://youtu.be/YIPO3W081Hw How Ridiculous World Record Basket: https://youtu.be/H9SF2YIKRY8
How does a transistor work? Our lives depend on this device. Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon Subscribe to Veritasium - it's FREE! http://bit.ly/YSWpWm When I mentioned to people that I was doing a video on transistors, they would say "as in a transistor radio?" Yes! That's exactly what I mean, but it goes so much deeper than that. After the transistor was invented in 1947 one of the first available consumer technologies it was applied to was radios, so they could be made portable and higher quality. Hence the line in 'Brown-eyed Girl' - "going down to the old mine with a transistor radio." But more important to our lives today, the transistor made possible the microcomputer revolution, and hence the Internet, and also TVs, mobile phones, fancy washing machines, dishwashers, calculators, satellites, projectors etc. etc. A transistor is based on semiconductor material, usually silicon, which is 'doped' with impurities to carefully change its electrical properties. These n and p-type semiconductors are then put together in different configurations to achieve a desired electrical result. And in the case of the transistor, this is to make a tiny electrical switch. These switches are then connected together to perform computations, store information, and basically make everything electrical work intelligently. Special thanks to PhD Comics for awesome animations: http://bit.ly/16ZXcVY And thanks to Henry Reich and Vanessa Hill for reviews of earlier drafts of this video. Music: Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Decisions
MinutePhysics on permanent magnets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFAOXdXZ5TM Subscribe to Veritasium: http://bit.ly/SuBVe Support Veritasium- get a t-shirt: http://dft.ba/-vetshirt Subscribe to MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/1eVPynh Magnetism seems like a pretty magical phenomenon. Rocks that attract or repel each other at a distance - that's really cool - and electric current in a wire interacts in the same way. What's even more amazing is how it works. We normally think of special relativity as having little bearing on our lives because everything happens at such low speeds that relativistic effects are negligible. But when you consider the large number of charges in a wire and the strength of the electric interaction, you can see that electromagnets function thanks to the special relativistic effect of length contraction. In a frame of reference moving with the charges, there is an electric field that creates a force on the charges. But in the lab frame, there is no electric field so it must be a magnetic field creating the force. Hence we see that a magnetic field is what an electric field becomes when an electrically charged object starts moving. I was inspired to make this video by Prof. Eric Mazur http://mazur.harvard.edu/emdetails.php Huge thank you to Ralph at the School of Physics, University of Sydney for helping us out with all this magnetic gear. Thanks also to geology for loaning the rocks. This video was filmed in the studio at the University of New South Wales - thanks to all the staff there for their time and support. Music: Firefly in a Fairytale, Nathaniel Schroeder, and Love Lost (Instrumental) by Temper Trap licensed from CueSongs.com
For more on spin, check out: http://youtu.be/v1_-LsQLwkA This video was supported by TechNYou: http://bit.ly/19bBX5G A quantum computer works in a totally different way from a classical computer. Quantum bits or 'qubits' can exist in a superposition state of both zero and one simultaneously. This means that a set of two qubits can be in a superposition of four states, which therefore require four numbers to uniquely identify the state. So the amount of information stored in N qubits is two to the power of N classical bits. Thank you to Andrea Morello and UNSW. For more info, check out: http://bit.ly/17wZ7lt
Increasing entropy is NOT the only process that's asymmetric in time. Check out the book: http://WeHaveNoIdea.com This video was co-written by Daniel Whiteson and Jorge Cham You can also check out PhD Comics: http://phdcomics.com Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Joshua Abenir Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://ve42.co/patreon Original paper on parity violation by the weak force by Lee and Yang: http://www.physics.utah.edu/~belz/phys5110/PhysRev.104.254.pdf More on B-meson oscillations and time reversal violation: Physics World Article: http://ve42.co/TimeReversal Original paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.1742.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_meson Physics consultant: Prof. Stephen Bartlett Studio filming by Raquel Nuno
Einstein's classic thought experiment involves sitting on a train travelling at the speed of light. If you hold a mirror in front of your face, will you see your reflection in a mirror? How could light from your face reach the mirror if the mirror is travelling away from you? But it would be a pretty spooky train if you couldn't see your reflection so Einstein felt this solution wasn't realistic. On the other hand if you could see your reflection, it would mean light was travelling at the speed of light inside the train. But that meant the same light observed from outside the train would be going twice the speed of light. This again seems inconsistent. So Einstein resolved that you must see your reflection but that light must travel at the same speed inside and outside the train. The only way this is possible is if space and time are perceived differently by observers inside and outside the train.
A head-vaporizing laser with a perfect wavelength detecting sub-proton space-time ripples. Huge thanks to Prof Rana Adhikari and LIGO: http://ligo.org Here's how he felt when he learned about the first ever detection: https://youtu.be/ViMnGgn87dg Thanks to Patreon supporters: Nathan Hansen, Donal Botkin, Tony Fadell, Saeed Alghamdi, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal Support Veritasium on Patreon: http://bit.ly/VePatreon A lot of videos have covered the general overview of the discovery of gravitational waves, what they are, the history of the search, when they were found but I wanted to delve into the absurd science that made the detection possible. When scientists want one megawatt of laser power, it's not just for fun (though I'm sure it's that too), it's because the fluctuations in the number of photons is proportional to their square root, making more powerful beams less noisy (as a fraction of their total). The smoothest mirrors were created not for aesthetic joy but because when you're trying to measure wiggles that are a fraction the width of a proton, a rough mirror surface simply won't do. Filmed by Daniel Joseph Files Music by Kevin MacLeod, http://www.incompetech.com "Black Vortex" (appropriately named) Music licensed from Epidemic Sound http://epidemicsound.com "Observations 2" (also appropriately named)
We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us? This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet: Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235 https://ve42.co/luminet Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the "shadow" of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings. What about the black hole "shadow" itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s Huge thanks to: Prof. Geraint Lewis University of Sydney https://ve42.co/gfl Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow Prof. Rana Adhikari Caltech https://ve42.co/Rana Riccardo Antonelli - for excellent images of black holes, simulations and ray-tracing code, check out: https://ve42.co/rantonels The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration Check out their resources and get your local link for the livestream here: https://ve42.co/EHT Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme Filming by Raquel Nuno Animation by Maria Raykova
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle tells us that it is impossible to simultaneously measure the position and momentum of a particle with infinite precision. In our everyday lives we virtually never come up against this limit, hence why it seems peculiar. In this experiment a laser is shone through a narrow slit onto a screen. As the slit is made narrower, the spot on the screen also becomes narrower. But at a certain point, the spot starts becoming wider. This is because the photons of light have been so localised at the slit that their horizontal momentum must become less well defined in order to satisfy Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. I based this video on one by Prof. Walter Lewin of MIT: http://bit.ly/100Wk2K Henry (MinutePhysics) has previously made a video about Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle where he treats it as less spooky and more a consequence of waves: http://bit.ly/TV3xO5 Sixty Symbols has a great video on Planck's constant: http://bit.ly/11upebY Thanks to the University of Sydney for hosting this experiment, especially to Tom and Ralph for their assistance getting it working. Music: Kevin McLeod (Incompetech.com) Mirage and Danse Macabre
NOTE: This video will appear in a playlist on Smarter Every Day hence the references to Veritasium. Destin does lots of cool science stuff - check out his channel if you haven't already http://www.youtube.com/destinws2 We have been collaborating on rotational motion, which is timely for some of the videos I've been doing lately. In this video I talk about gyroscopic precession - the "wobbling" of a spinning top around its axis. This is caused by the torque due to the object's weight. The big idea is that the torque vector increases angular momentum in the direction of torque. So if there is no angular momentum initially, it will cause the system to swing in such a direction that it is rotating with new angular momentum in the direction of the torque. However, if there was angular momentum to begin with, the torque will change the direction of that angular momentum by causing precession.
The Higgs Boson is awesome but it's NOT responsible for most of your mass! Thanks to audible.com for supporting this episode: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z The Higgs mechanism is meant to account for the mass of everything, right? Well no, only the fundamental particles, which means that electrons derive their mass entirely from the Higgs interaction but protons and neutrons, made of quarks, do not. In fact the quark masses are so small that they only make up about 1% of the mass of the proton (and a similar fraction of the neutron). The rest of the mass comes from the energy in the gluon field. Gluons are massless, but there is so much energy in the field that by E=mc^2 there is a significant amount of mass there. This is where most of your mass comes from and the mass of virtually everything around you. Thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber for his great images, animations and explanations. Check out his site to find out more: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
At the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, they showed me this experiment where a 1kg aluminium plate is levitated above a large coil of wire that is being supplied with 800A of alternating current at 900Hz. This is by far the best demonstration of electromagnetic induction I have ever seen. Back in London, I visited the magnetic lab of Michael Faraday in the basement of the Royal Institution. It was here that he did his groundbreaking work on induction. People had previously observed that current in a wire causes a compass needle to deflect, but more exciting was the prospect of using a magnetic field to generate current. Faraday created his famous induction ring by winding two coils of insulated wire onto an iron ring. When he connected a battery to one coil, a small pulse of current was induced in the other. When the battery was disconnected, current was induced in the other direction. This led Faraday to the conclusion that current was induced in the second coil only when the magnetic field through it was changing. And if they hadn't been wrapped on the same ring, Faraday may have noticed that the two coils repel each other when the current is induced due to the interaction of their magnetic fields. This is the same thing that is happening with the aluminium plate, except we're using alternating current to create a continually changing magnetic field. This induces an alternating current in the plate, producing an opposing magnetic field which levitates the disk.
Does quantum entanglement make faster-than-light communication possible? What is NOT random? http://bit.ly/NOTrandoVe First, I know this video is not easy to understand. Thank you for taking the time to attempt to understand it. I've been working on this for over six months over which time my understanding has improved. Quantum entanglement and spooky action at a distance are still debated by professors of quantum physics (I know because I discussed this topic with two of them). Does hidden information (called hidden variables by physicists) exist? If it does, the experiment violating Bell inequalities indicates that hidden variables must update faster than light - they would be considered 'non-local'. On the other hand if you don't consider the spins before you make the measurement then you could simply say hidden variables don't exist and whenever you measure spins in the same direction you always get opposite results, which makes sense since angular momentum must be conserved in the universe. Everyone agrees that quantum entanglement does not allow information to be transmitted faster that light. There is no action either detector operator could take to signal the other one - regardless of the choice of measurement direction, the measured spins are random with 50/50 probability of up/down. Special thanks to: Prof. Stephen Bartlett, University of Sydney: http://bit.ly/1xSosoJ Prof. John Preskill, Caltech: http://bit.ly/1y8mJut Looking Glass Universe: http://bit.ly/17zZH7l Physics Girl: http://bit.ly/PhysGirl MinutePhysics: http://bit.ly/MinPhys Community Channel: http://bit.ly/CommChannel Nigel, Helen, Luke, and Simon for comments on earlier drafts of this video. Filmed in part by Scott Lewis: http://google.com/+scottlewis Music by Amarante "One Last Time": http://bit.ly/VeAmarante
The physics behind Kelvin's Thunderstorm explained. No, it is not a practical way of generating electricity, which is why we use turbines at hydro stations. This video goes into more detail about the phenomenon demonstrated in this Hunger Games collab video: http://youtu.be/Rwa26CXG1fc
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